Java vs .NET: Main Difference You Should Know

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Programming language is not only about rules, commands, and algorithms. These are entire ecosystems combining various libraries and frameworks.

Choosing between such famous programming languages as Java versus .NET choice can be pretty tough. Many companies use them to create web applications and websites and choose one of them as their main solution.

Thus, we have prepared the following blog post to help you make a weighted decision between Net Framework vs Java.

These two well-known programming languages allow you to work with server and desktop applications. Learn the main difference between Java and .NET and decide on the best one for your project!

What is Java?

Java is a programming language, in which games, mobile and web apps, and business software are written. That is why it is ranked 2nd on Spectrum, 3rd on Github, and 5th most popular programming language on Stack Overflow.

The creators have implemented the WORA principle: write once, run anywhere. This means that an application written in Java can be run on any platform as long as the Java Runtime Environment is installed on it.

The significant advantage of Java is that it is continually evolving regardless of 25 years of functioning in the market. The technology is continuously being improved to maintain a strong position in the IT market.

The well-known Minecraft video game was written in Java, as were the Gmail and OpenOffice applications, as well as the servers for web pages of LinkedIn.com, Netflix.com, and Amazon.com.

What is .NET?

The .NET Framework (also known as dot net) is a unique technology for running web development services and building apps on the Windows operating system. This framework allows you to use the same libraries, namespaces, and APIs for different languages. Most often, these are four languages from the .NET  family:

  • C#;
  • Visual Basic;
  • Visual C++;
  • F#.

The purpose of the .NET Framework is to serve as a framework to support the development and execution of highly distributed component applications. It provides cross-language programming as well as security, program portability, and a common programming model for the Windows platform.

.NET is generally employed on the web in the Back-End (Asp.NET), gaining popularity in the Front-End (Blazor), popular in the gaming industry (Unity), and employed in machine learning (ML.NET) and Data Science. The lion’s share of Windows apps (as well as a considerable share of Windows itself) is written in .NET.

Pros and Cons of Java

Pros:

  • The programmers themselves determine the data type, its structure, and the set of functions applied to it. This allows you to repurpose the objects in multiple programs. It is more convenient for organizing the structure of programs (especially with a large amount of code), helps eliminate errors, and makes it easier to maintain and update old code.
  • Java is used for servers, web pages, and Android applications. This serves as a big advantage in favor of this programming language.
  • It is a high-level language, i.e., it is more like human speech than machine code. Consequently, it has a relatively simple syntax, making it quick to learn and easy to code, read, and maintain.
  • Java has several features that address common vulnerabilities. In particular, this is the Security Manager - a security policy created for access rules in each application.
  • This language was initially created for collaboration (including remote work), enabling simultaneous data and program sharing with several computers.
  • During its existence, Java has gained a great number of solutions and technologies, as well as one of the largest communities (14 mln in 2022).

Cons:

  • All high-level languages, including Java, have to be compiled using a virtual machine, which badly affects their efficiency.
  • The features of natural languages make Java easier to learn and understand. Still, it also leads to the fact that it contains much redundant information and is pretty bulky.
  • Java contains many frameworks and tools for a graphical interface. However, compared to other market players, its design options are scarce.
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Pros and Cons of .NET

Pros:

  • Due to the CLR (Common Language Runtime), all languages ​​that .NET supports are compiled into an intermediate-level language. Due to this feature, you can integrate libraries that are written in other languages.
  • Visual Studio, one of the best integrated environments, allows you to develop, test, and publish applications across multiple platforms.
  • This object-oriented language is the main one in the development of .NET projects.
  • Integration of libraries is maximally simplified thanks to the Nuget manager (a tool for working with libraries).

Cons:

  • For .NET applications to work on Windows, special distributions must be installed. Another disadvantage is that each new version of .NET distributions must be installed separately.
  • Each technology is regularly updated, and version dependencies are changing. But, sometimes the need for a former library version may occur. Due to version dependencies, you must switch versions of other libraries, and this results in malfunctions.

Java vs .NET: Key differences

.NET vs Java is an eternal battle in software development. Many companies use them to create web applications and websites and choose one of them as the main solution. Let’s analyze the difference between Java and .Net as two well-known programming languages:

Developer

Java is the product of Sun Microsystems and first appeared in 1995, while .NET was released in 2002 by Microsoft.

Type

Java is an object-oriented programming language supporting numerous 3rd-party operating systems and having a platform-agnostic nature. .NET functions as the open source framework complying only with Windows OS. Thus, dotnet vs Java comparison is controversial.

Code execution

Java employs Java Virtual Machine source codes, while .NET uses Common Language Runtime.

Development environment

Java provides usage of multiple third-party IDEs (Integrated Development Environment) such as NetBeans, Eclipse, and IntelliJ IDEA. In contrast, .NET is known to work only with Microsoft Visual Studio as a Microsoft-originated framework. However, .Net can be written with other IDEs too, f.e., with IntelliJ IDEA.

Languages

Java is a programming language by itself. However, JVM can also support Python, Rexx, R, and Ruby. With .NET, you can employ various languages: C#, F#, or Visual Basic.

Popularity

Java’s relative maturity and multi-platform nature are the strengths appealing to more engineers. Subject to Stack Overflow Trends, in dot net vs Java battle, Java is a more popular programming language by queries.

Java vs .NET in Stack Overflow Trends

How to choose the best technology for your project between Java and NET?

Website and application development helps to take the business to the next level. Both Java and .NET Framework are in demand by many developers as they are reliable and functional.

We have considered the main benefits and drawbacks of .NET vs Java and the differences between these frameworks. Then, we recommend you consider your project's top priorities and decide which technology between dot net vs Java is more appropriate for their achievement.

Most of the problems are the same everywhere. The key fact is that you can solve all of them by applying different approaches. To choose the best-fit option in dotnet vs Java with the maximal benefits, you can address the professional IT engineers with rich software architecture expertise.

If your business needs to develop software, you can address Axon professionals. Perhaps this is exactly what your business lacked for a new growth era.

Axon Development Group
July 26, 2022
Software Development

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